Handbook of the Psychology of Aging


PartCONCEPTS, THEORY, AND METHODS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AGING 1



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CONCEPTS, THEORY, AND METHODS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AGING
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(1980) model of convoys of social support suggests, the significant others in the individuals life would be expected to change across the life course, progressing from parents, to spouses and extended family, friends, and colleagues. The external environments in the exo- system that impact individual development would thus vary across the life course as the significant others change. In the child literature, the parents ’ work environment has been shown to impact childrearing practices Kohn & Schooler, 1983 ), occupational aspirations of adolescents ( Mortimer & Kumka, 1982 ), and curricular activities ( Morgan et al., 1979 ).
In the Bronfenbrenner model, the exosystem focuses primarily on the concurrent environments of significant others (e.g., parents work environment) that may impact the developing individual. However, our framework also includes transitions occurring across the adult lives of significant others that may influence the individual. For example, the fathers educational or occupational experiences as a young adult and occurring in a particular historical may influence subsequent intellectual functioning of the offspring ( Hauser & Featherman, 1976 ).
The mesosystem involves the principal contexts or environments in which individual development takes place. Given the focus on childhood, the family is considered the primary context of development in the

Bronfenbrenner model. However, in our framework, web Table 3.1

Framework for the study of environmental influences


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