How to be a good psychological detective



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Psychology, Research, and You

MULTIPLE CHOICE


1-1. You are designing a new course on “How to be a good psychological detective.” In order to understand any event, you tell your students that they first must be able to answer which of these questions?

a) What occurred?

b) How is the law of parsimony operating?

c) What psychological principle is operating?

d) How does the event differ from folk wisdom?

ANS: a,
1-2. We encounter events in our lives and in the mass media involving psychology



  1. only if we are in college.

  2. almost every day.

  3. infrequently.

  4. never or almost never.

ANS: b,
1-3. Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology today?

a) the science of behavior

b) the science of mental processes

c) the science of behavior and mental processes

d) the science of human behavior and mental processes

ANS: c,


1-4. Which topic would not be investigated by a psychologist if the definition of psychology were limited to “the science of behavior”?

a) relation between grade-point average and salary

b) thought processes students used while trying to answer this question

c) how changes in the rate of television violence influence real-life violence

d) effectiveness of several treatments for people who suffer from depression

ANS: b,

1-5. You are required to write a paper on the usefulness of folk wisdom and proverbs in explaining human behavior. Which of these would be the best title for your paper?

a) “Difficult to Disprove”

b) “Human Behavior Can’t Be Explained”

c) “Naturalistic Observations but Not Correlational Evidence”

d) “Experimental Verification of Ancient Folk Wisdom and Proverbs”

ANS: a, pp. 4-5,

1-6. As a class assignment you are asked to collect examples of folk wisdom that have been used to explain human behavior. Your teacher asks you to summarize your findings in a presentation to the class. Which of the following titles would be most appropriate for your presentation?

a) “Folk Wisdom as Contradictory Explanations”

b) “Metaphysical Influences on Human Behavior”

c) “Explanations of Human Behavior: All in the Genes”

d) “Proverbs: Wisdom of the Ancients with Applications Today”

ANS: a, pp. 4-5,


1-7. While watching television you hear a list of the guests that will appear on the Late Night Cable Show. One of the guests is described as a “medium.” What would you expect this guest to do during his appearance on television?

a) describe a dream

b) try to contact the dead

c) change solid matter into liquid

d) predict the future by reading tea leaves

ANS: b, p. 5,


1-8. Time for another round of Jeopardy. One of the categories is “Famous Authors.” With great confidence you say, “I’ll take ‘Famous Authors’ for $200.” The revealed answer is “Believed in mediums and fairies.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

a) “Who is Mark Twain?”

b) “Who is Sigmund Freud?”

c) “Who is Ernest Hemingway?”

d) “Who is Arthur Conan Doyle?”

ANS: d, p. 5,

1-9. A cable television channel is developing a program on Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and his belief in fairies. At a staff meeting, the producer asks for suggested titles. Which of these titles captures the essence of the story?

a) “In the Dark: Contacting the Dead”

b) “Hanging by a Thread: The Story of a Hoax”

c) “Revelations from Past Lives through Mythical Figures”

d) “Stranger than Fiction: Some Events Cannot Be Explained”

ANS: b, p. 5,

1-10. What important lesson could we learn from the story of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s belief that there was photographic proof that fairies exist?

a) Fiction writers are easy to fool.

b) Scientists are not equipped to investigate spiritualism.

c) Personal beliefs can influence the evaluation of evidence.

d) There is a major difference between the methods used to investigate criminal cases and events alleged to involve spiritualism.

ANS: c, p. 5,

1-11. You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half shouts its approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today’s lecture in your psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture?

a) bias


b) experiments

c) law of parsimony

d) extraneous variables

ANS: a, p. 5,


1-12. Steve is a fan of the San Antonio Spurs basketball team. With little provocation, he will engage you in a debate about whether they are the greatest team in basketball. Steve may be demonstrating

a) bias.


b) critical thinking.

c) an eclectic approach.

d) the law of parsimony.

ANS: a, p. 5,


1-13. When we view a claim, question, or proposed solution, we must be cautious that our assumptions do not make us

a) biased.

b) critical.

c) uncertain.

d) parsimonious.

ANS: a, p. 5,

1-14. You are faced with a choice between two hypothetical explanations of an event. Theory A is straightforward and brief; Theory B is complex and lengthy. If you select Theory A, you are using the law of

a) parsimony.

b) eclectism.

c) anti-complexity.

d) personal choice.

ANS: a, p. 6,


1-15. According to the law of parsimony, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle should have believed that

  1. fairies were real.

  2. the girls played an elaborate hoax on him.

  3. fairies are real even though the girls were playing an elaborate hoax on him.

  4. The law of parsimony does not apply in this situation.

ANS: b, p. 6,

1-16. Your neighbor who was ignored as a child was diagnosed with schizophrenia during early adulthood. Based on this observation you decide that schizophrenia occurs among people who have been ignored when they were children. Which psychological detective guideline is most relevant to the evaluation of this proposed cause of schizophrenia?

a) What do statistics reveal?

b) What is the claim and who is making it?

c) Is the claim based on scientific observations?

d) Are there plausible alternative explanations for the claim?

ANS: c, p. 7,

1-17. Why is it important to know how the facts supporting a claim were derived?

a) Psychologists do not use scientific research methods.

b) Psychologists prefer casual observation over research.

c) Psychologists prefer research over casual observation.

d) The method used to derive facts is not important because any method can be the basis for cause-and-effect statements.

ANS: c, p. 7,

1-18. A study of communication patterns in dolphins yields results that probably did not occur by chance. The researchers are likely to describe their results as

a) notable.

b) relevant.

c) experimentally important.

d) statistically significant.

ANS: d, p. 8,


1-19. Which conclusion is most justified based on a report showing that college entrance exam scores are correlated with grade-point averages (GPAs)?

a) College entrance exam scores can be used to predict GPAs.

b) Having high college entrance exam scores causes one to have a high GPA.

c) Having a high GPA causes one to score high on college entrance exams.

d) College entrance exam scores and GPAs cannot be correlated because they have different scales of measurement.

ANS: a, p. 8,


1-20. Which guideline for the psychological detective is concerned with the question of cause and effect?

a) What do statistics reveal?

b) What is the claim and who is making it?

c) Is the claim based on scientific observations?

d) Are there plausible alternative explanations for the claim?

ANS: d, p. 8,

1-21. The director of a youth orchestra reported that high school students who played in an orchestra obtained higher scores on college entrance tests than students who did not play in orchestras. Although the director’s statement is correct, as a psychological detective you have questions. What question would be most helpful in evaluating the implied claim?

a) Does this effect differ with the musical instrument played?

b) Do orchestra students have parents who are professional musicians?

c) How many instruments does a student have to play for this effect to occur?

d) Do students who play in the orchestra differ from the rest of the students in ways other than playing in an orchestra?

ANS: d, p. 8,

1-22. Which situation best illustrates the placebo effect?

a) You sleep because you are tired.

b) You are given a vaccination to prevent diphtheria.

c) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.

d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become “intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol.

ANS: d, p. 8,

1-23. Why can psychology be described as a science?

a) Psychologists conduct research in laboratories.

b) Psychologists conduct research on humans and animals.

c) Psychologists use methods such as introspection and psychoanalysis.

d) Psychologists uncover the causes of events by systematically collecting empirical evidence.

ANS: d, pp. 10-11,

1-24. Tammy is a psychologist interested in studying the influence of alcohol on domestic violence. What will she do if she follows the scientific method in devising a study?

a) form hypotheses based on intuition

b) develop a theory based on her hypotheses

c) conduct observations after testing her hypotheses, not before

d) test the hypotheses she generates from her theory and her initial observations

ANS: d, pp. 10-11,


1-25. You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often “fails to generalize.” Which method is the most likely topic of this discussion?

a) correlation

b) case study

c) experiment

d) naturalistic observation

ANS: b, p. 11,


1-26. A clinical psychologist wants to understand the behavior of hyperactive children. He decided to focus on Jenny, a six-year-old who has shown signs of hyperactivity. Which research method is the psychologist using?

a) survey

b) case study

c) experiment

d) correlational study

ANS: b, p. 11,

1-27. Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur, without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?

a) case study

b) experiment

c) correlational studies

d) naturalistic observation

ANS: d, p. 11,

1-28. When people attend sporting events and see a camera focused on them, they often act silly. This effect is most nearly opposite of what research technique?

a) experiment

b) case study

c) correlation

d) naturalistic observation

ANS: d, pp. 11-12,

1-29. Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to have noticed him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she said his observations were

a) reactive.

b) unobtrusive.

c) randomly correlated.

d) statistically significant.

ANS: a, pp. 11-12,

1-30. Which goal of psychology is most closely met through naturalistic observation?

a) altering behavior

b) predicting behavior

c) describing behavior

d) controlling behavior

ANS: c, pp. 11-12,


1-31. After reading the case of Ted Bundy, a serial killer, several students discussed the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in psychological research. What conclusions might they reach?

a) Case studies are easy to conduct, but they are not good sources of research ideas.

b) Case studies can provide a wealth of detail, but the information may not be applicable to other individuals.

c) Case studies are the primary research method used by psychologists because they provide cause-and-effect conclusions.

d) Case studies are used only for abnormal behavior and thus have limited use in studying the kinds of behavior that are of interest to most psychologists.

ANS: b, p. 11,

1-32. A psychologist evaluated Ann, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. Ann seems to have an unusual learning disability. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers’ responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Therefore, she designed a study that would tell her if diet was the actual cause. In order, which research methods has this psychologist used?

a) experiment, case study, survey

b) case study, survey, experiment

c) correlation, case study, experiment

d) naturalistic observation, survey, experiment

ANS: b, pp. 11-16,

1-33. In preparation for his master’s thesis, Al spends time in the mall observing the shoppers’ behavior. His notes reveal a tendency for people to smile when someone, even a stranger, smiles at them. Later in the semester, he designs a questionnaire that focuses on typical reactions when someone smiles. He wonders if the sex, style of dress, and age of a person who smiles has any influence on returned smiles, so he designs research to answer this question. In order, which research methods has Al used?

a) experiment, case study, survey

b) case study, survey, experiment

c) correlation, case study, experiment

d) naturalistic observation, survey, experiment

ANS: d, pp. 11-16,


1-34. The College Board’s Validity Study Service reported a correlation of +.42 between college grade-point average and SAT scores. Which statement is most consistent with this report?

a) SAT scores cause grade-point averages to rise.

b) The relation means SAT scores can be used to predict grade-point average.

c) There is little relation between SAT scores and grade-point average for most college students.

d) The relation is not based on sound scientific principles of investigation and should not influence admissions decisions.

ANS: b, pp. 12-13,

1-35. As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatterplot look like?

a) a random distribution of points

b) a flowing line that moved up and down like a wave

c) a straight line from the lower left to the upper right hand corner

d) a straight line from the upper left to the lower right hand corner

ANS: a, p. 13,

1-36. Which correlation coefficient indicates the strongest relation between two variables?

a) -.13


b) +.38

c) +.56


d) -.74

ANS: d, pp. 12-13,


1-37. Which group of correlation coefficients is presented from the highest in magnitude to the lowest in magnitude?

a) +1.00, .00, -1.00

b) -.80, -.50, +.32

c) +.75, +.50, -.75

d) +1.00, -.08, +.70

ANS: b, pp. 12-13,


1-38. Ray, a student in an advanced-level psychology course, was given the following assignment: Compute the correlation between height and weight for 335 students in his class. Ray completed the assignment and found that r = -1.09. What comment might the teacher have written on his paper?

a) “Good job, you have demonstrated a strong relationship between height and weight.”

b) “Please check your calculations because you calculated a correlation coefficient that cannot occur.”

c) “This assignment was a trick because height and weight cannot be correlated using methods available today.”

d) “Looks like there is a strong negative relationship between height and weight, which is not likely to occur outside of a college population.”

ANS: b, pp. 12-13,

1-39. The correlation between scores on a test of tranquility and age at death is +.60. What could we conclude from this correlation coefficient?

a) People with high tranquility scores live longer.

b) Dying at a later age is related to low tranquility scores.

c) People who have high tranquility scores tend to die younger.

d) People with low tranquility scores die 60 percent sooner than those with high tranquility scores.

ANS: a, pp. 12-13,

1-40. Most of the points in a scatterplot would fit close to a line running from the lower left to the upper right-hand corner. Which correlation coefficient would most likely describe the relation between the two variables?

a) .00


b) +.20

c) +.75


d) -.90

ANS: c, pp. 12-13,


1-41. Most of the points in a scatterplot would fit close to a line running from the upper left hand corner to the lower right-hand corner. Which of the following correlation coefficients would most likely describe the relation between the two variables?

a) -.85


b) +.70

c) +20


d) .00

ANS: a, pp. 12-13,


1-42. Police officers across the country have noticed an interesting trend: the lower the temperature, the fewer crimes are reported; the higher the temperature, the more crimes are reported. Which correlation coefficient most likely describes the relation between temperature and crime?

a) .00


b) -.35

c) +.10


d) +.76

ANS: d, pp. 12-13,

1-43. A researcher found a correlation of -.65 between college students’ grade-point averages and the number of hours they spend watching television each month. What can you conclude from this correlation?

a) Watching a lot of television causes bad grades.

b) Good students watch a lot of television and get good grades.

c) There is a relation between television watching and college grades.

d) Poor grades lead students to watch more television to reduce their bad feelings.

ANS: c, pp. 12-13,

1-44. The correlation between scores on a measure of hostility and age at death is -.50. What could we conclude from this correlation coefficient?

a) People with high hostility scores live longer.

b) People who have low hostility scores die younger.

c) People who have high hostility scores die younger.

d) People who have low hostility scores die 50 percent sooner than those with high hostility scores.

ANS: c, pp. 12-13,


1-45. Which example represents a positive correlation?

a) the higher your weight, the lower your GPA

b) the more hours of sunshine, the fewer inches of rain

c) the more days you miss class, the more points you lose

d) if you take more Vitamin C, you are less likely to catch a cold

ANS: c, pp. 12-13,


1-46. Which example represents a negative correlation?

a) the higher your SAT score, the higher your GPA

b) the larger your car engine, the lower your gas mileage

c) the more days you are present in class, the higher your grades

d) the higher the outside temperature, the higher your air conditioning bill

ANS: b, pp. 12-13,


1-47. Which correlation coefficient would most likely describe the relation between shoe size and intelligence scores in a group of 5,000 randomly selected adults?

a) .00


b) -.50

c) +.60

d) -.75

ANS: a, pp. 12-13,

1-48. Which example represents a negative correlation?

a) the taller you are, the more you tend to weigh

b) the faster you drive, the lower your miles per gallon

c) the greater your income, the more taxes you will pay

d) the more time you spend working out, the more muscle mass you develop

ANS: b, pp. 12-13,


1-49. Knowing that there is a correlation of +.75 between the Test of Verbal Ability (TVA) and performance in graduate school allows us to state that

a) scoring high on the TVA causes one to make good grades in graduate school.

b) making good grades in graduate school causes one to make a high score on the TVA.

c) people who make low scores on the TVA tend to make good grades in graduate school.

d) people who make high scores on the TVA tend to make good grades in graduate school.

ANS: d, pp. 12-13,


1-50. A negative correlation would most likely exist between

a) height and weight.

b) intelligence and grade-point average.

c) educational level and problem solving ability.

d) amount of practice and number of errors on a task.

ANS: d, pp. 12-13,


1-51. A real estate agent noticed a strong relation between home cost and distance from the city. Homes that are a short distance from the city tend to cost more; homes that are greater distances from the city tend to cost less. Which correlation coefficient probably describes this relationship?

a). -.78

b) +.55

c) -.10

d) +.92

ANS: a, pp. 12-13,

1-52. Which question could be answered best by using the survey method?

a) What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability?

b) Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations?

c) Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?

d) What is the relationship between the number of hours worked and grade-point average?

ANS: c, p. 14,


1-53. A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?

a) survey

b) experiment

c) case study

d) naturalistic observation

ANS: a, p. 14,

1-54. When researchers want to estimate the national crime rate, why do they ask only several thousand persons about their experiences with crime?

a) Only some people will take the time to answer such a survey.

b) These people live in New York City and will give high estimates.

c) The people surveyed are a representative sample of the population.

d) The people who are most affected by crime are selected for the survey.

ANS: c, p. 14,

1-55. What is a representative sample?

a) a small population

b) a group of participants who know each other

c) a sample that is identical in size and characteristics to a population

d) a sample selected to reflect the characteristics of a population of interest

ANS: d, p. 14,

1-56. On a television show, a physician draws a blood sample to be used to determine if a patient has a virus. This segment immediately reminds you of a concept discussed in your psychology class. Of the following concepts, which one is most accurately illustrated by this television segment?

a) law of parsimony

b) extraneous variables

c) reactive observations

d) representative sample

ANS: d, p. 14,

1-57. Which pair represents a population and a sample that is most likely to be representative of that population?

a) purchasers of new family cars and purchasers of SUVs

b) residents of the United States and residents of Montana

c) students attending State University and student athletes at State University

d) voters in the most recent election and every tenth person who leaves the polling place

ANS: d, pp. 14-15,


1-58. In survey research, the wording of questions is important. What, if anything, is wrong with a survey question like “Do you agree that wealthy actors are overpaid?”

a) The word wealthy may bias respondents.

b) The word agree may bias respondents.

c) The words wealthy and agree may bias respondents.

d) There is nothing wrong with the question.

ANS: c, p. 15,

1-59. A holistic research method that seeks to provide a complete narrative description of an entire phenomenon or culture is known as ________ research.

a) quantitative

b) qualitative

c) correlational

d) empirical

ANS: b, p. 15,


1-60. The primary goal of qualitative research is

a) determining cause and effect relationships.

b) finding statistically statistical results.

c) developing a complete description of the behavior of interest.

d) using experimental methods to prove or disprove theories.

ANS: c,

1-61. A researcher is studying post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of the 9/11 disaster. She wants to interview survivors in order to better understand their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to form a narrative description of post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. This is an example of ________ research.

a) quantitative

b) qualitative

c) correlational

d) empirical

ANS: b, pp. 15-16,

1-62. A researcher is interested in studying how unemployment affects fathers’ interactions with their children. The researcher gathers together 25 unemployed fathers and with a moderator they discuss how they think and feel about their situation and their interactions with their children. This is an example of

a) a focus group study.

b) survey research.

c) correlational research.

d) empirical research.

ANS: a, pp. 15-16,


1-63. A research method in which a group of similar people discuss a topic of research with a moderator in order to provide information concerning how people think and feel about that topic is known as a ________ study.

a) moderated survey

b) discussion group

c) case


d) focus group

ANS: d, pp. 15-16,


1-64. After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term describes the scientist’s idea?

a) hypothesis

b) dependent variable

c) extraneous variable

d) experimental estimate

ANS: a,
1-65. Which research technique can provide cause-and-effect answers?

a) survey

b) experimental

c) case study

d) correlational

ANS: b,
1-66. What do we call the variable an experimenter manipulates in order to determine its effects in an experiment?

a) controlled variable

b) dependent variable

c) extraneous variable

d) independent variable

ANS: d,

1-67. What is the change in behavior that researchers measure when they conduct an experiment?

a) replicated variable

b) dependent variable

c) independent variable

d) difference between the independent and dependent variables

ANS: b,

1-68. A riverboat gambling company wants to increase the amount of money that patrons gamble while on board. A researcher suggests that the scent of ginger in the air might increase interest in gambling. What would a researcher select as the most likely independent variable and dependent variable in an experiment designed to test this idea?

a) The independent variable would be the scent of ginger; the dependent variable would be the noise level on the boat.

b) The independent variable would be the sense of smell; the dependent variable would be the level of the scent of ginger.

c) The independent variable would be the amount of ginger in the air; the dependent variable would be the amount of money bet.

d) The independent variable would be the amount of money gambled; the dependent variable would be the amount of money that is lost.

ANS: c,

1-69. Kitchen Depot, a major kitchen remodeling company, decides it wants to investigate factors that might influence consumers to remodel their kitchens. They randomly select 100 of their stores to take part in the proposed research. They investigate the effects of the presentation of the kitchen design plan (black and white versus color) and the type of music played in the stores (classical music versus modern jazz) on the total cost of kitchen remodeling contracts that are signed during a year. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this research.

a) The independent variable is the presentation of the kitchen plan; the dependent variable is the type of music.

b) The independent variable is the cost of the kitchen projects; the dependent variables are the presentation of the kitchen plans and music.

c) The independent variable is the amount of money spent on the projects; the dependent variables are the presentation of the kitchen plans and music.

d) The independent variables are presentation of the kitchen plans and type of music; the dependent variable is the cost of the signed contracts.

ANS: d,

1-70. A restaurant manager wants to investigate the effect of using wine in sauces on the amount of money the restaurant makes per day. What type of variable is the presence or absence of wine in the sauces?

a) control

b) dependent

c) extraneous

d) independent

ANS: d,
1-71. Two groups of volunteers are involved in an experiment to test the effects of a new drug for treating insomnia. One group of participants is given the drug; the other group is given a pill that contains no medication but looks exactly like the one that contains the drug. What term is used to designate the participants who were given the “false” pill?

a) normal group

b) control group

c) independent group

d) experimental group

ANS: b,
1-72. A number of students volunteered for an experiment that required them to follow a special diet. The researchers wanted to determine the effects of a diet high in grain content on blood cholesterol levels. What is the special diet in this experiment?

a) control variable

b) dependent variable

c) extraneous variable

d) independent variable

ANS: d,

1-73. Among the possible causes of aggression are access to firearms, time spent playing violent video games, and watching violent television programs. If these three factors were used in an experiment on aggression, the researcher would label them as ________ variables.

a) controlled

b) theoretical

c) dependent

d) independent

ANS: d,

1-74. A psychologist is investigating the study behavior of college students. She writes a list that includes the following: underlining versus not underlining, studying in a quiet room versus studying in a noisy room, and studying alone versus studying with a group of students. Which term best describes the items on this list?

a) control variables

b) dependent variables

c) extraneous variables

d) independent variables

ANS: d,

1-75. A researcher manipulates the amount of alcohol and level of background noise while presenting pictures to a group of research participants. Later, she tests the participants’ memory for the pictures. How many independent and dependent variables are in this experiment?

a) one independent variable and one dependent variable

b) two dependent variables and one independent variable

c) two independent variables and two dependent variables

d) two independent variables and one dependent variable

ANS: d,


1-76. The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if class size and arrangement of chairs affects educational atmosphere in classrooms. Which of the following would be the best operational definition of the dependent variable in the experiment suggested here?

a) class size: under 50 or over 50

b) number of students enrolled in each class

c) chair arrangement: theater style or circular

d) students’ perceived freedom to ask questions

ANS: d,


1-77. A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this experiment.

a) The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.

b) The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.

c) The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.

d) The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.

ANS: a,

1-78. In order to increase typing speed, Minisoft has redesigned its keyboard and provided a chime that is related to typing speed. The company wants to know if their innovations affect typing speed. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this proposed study.

a) The dependent variable is the chime; the independent variables are the chime and typing speed.

b) The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the keyboard design and the chime.

c) The dependent variable is keyboard design; the independent variables are the speed of typing and the chime.

d) The dependent variable is the number of errors made; the independent variables are the chime and the speed of typing.

ANS: b,

1-79. Among the possible causes of aggression are genetic factors, family environment, and neurochemical factors. What label would be used for aggression in a study that involved these three factors?

a) hypothesis

b) dependent variable

c) controlled variable

d) independent variable

ANS: b,
1-80. A professor wants to design her courses to offer students the best chance of succeeding. In order to determine the best approach to use, she decides to vary the number of quizzes she administers during her first two years of teaching. What is a good dependent variable for this professor to use?

a) number of absences in each class

b) average grade in each of the classes

c) students’ scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test

d) number of seniors in each of the classes she teaches

ANS: b,
1-81. A company that manufactures drugs to treat heart disease wants to determine if a new drug and exercise can affect cholesterol levels. What are the independent and dependent variables in this proposed study?

a) The dependent variable is exercise; the independent variables are the drug and cholesterol level.

b) The dependent variable is cholesterol level; the independent variables are the drug and exercise.

c) The independent variables are the drug and cholesterol level; the dependent variable is amount of exercise.

d) The dependent variable is the number of heart attacks; the independent variables are the drug, exercise, and cholesterol level.

ANS: b,

1-82. A researcher is investigating the effects of meditation on stress levels. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this experiment.

a) The dependent variable is meditation; the independent variable is exercise.

b) The dependent variable is stress levels; the independent variable is meditation.

c) The independent variable is relaxation levels; the dependent variable is meditation.

d) The independent variable is amount of stress; the dependent variable is meditation.

ANS: b,


1-83. The notion that music can influence mood is widely held. Several psychologists decide to put this idea to an experimental test. What would happen to the participants in the control and experimental groups?

a) Both the control and experimental groups would hear the same type of music.

b) The control group would hear no music; the experimental group would listen to music.

c) Both groups would be asked to make ratings of the songs they typically hear on the radio.

d) The control group would give ratings of their mood; the experimental group would select music they want to hear.

ANS: b,


1-84. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions?

a) to identify extraneous variables

b) to comply with legal requirements

c) to allow researchers to replicate experiments

d) to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand

ANS: c,


1-85. Research participants who experience the independent variable are part of the _______ group, whereas participants who are not exposed to the independent variable constitute the _______ group.

a) control; uncontrolled

b) control; experimental

c) uncontrolled; control

d) experimental; control

ANS: d,

1-86. A teacher has often heard that humor might have educational benefits in class. This teacher designs an experiment to determine if humor influences test scores. Students in the teacher’s classes are randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. What is a likely difference in the way the two groups will be treated in this experiment?

a) The two groups will be treated exactly the same in all respects.

b) The control group will be allowed to tell jokes in class; the experimental group will listen to the jokes.

c) The control group will take regular tests; the experimental group will take the same tests with some humor included in the items.

d) The control group will listen to humorous recordings while taking tests; the experimental group will take the same tests under regular conditions.

ANS: c,

1-87. You want to study the effects of watching television on creativity in children. You identify the experimental group as children who will watch five hours of television a day. What will the control group look like?

a) a group of children who don’t watch any television

b) a group of adults who watch five hours of television a day

c) a group of children who watch 10 hours of television a day

d) a group of children who watch five hours of television and listen to five hours of radio each day

ANS: a,

1-88. Several students want to determine if relaxation exercises reduce levels of test anxiety. To answer their question, they ask a group of students if they relax before taking a test. They find many students who relax say they have low levels of anxiety. What conclusion is justified from the results of their survey?

a) Relaxation should be used by students before they take exams.

b) The absence of a control group makes the findings difficult to interpret.

c) There seems to be a positive correlation between relaxing and grade point average.

d) Students who report being relaxed were probably just saying that because they were afraid.

ANS: b,
1-89. Albert Bandura hypothesized that children who observed an adult behaving aggressively would be more likely to exhibit aggressive actions. In his experiment ________ was the independent variable and ________ was the dependent variable.

a) whether the child was abused; number of times the child yelled at an adult

b) number of times the child yelled at an adult; whether the child was abused

c) number of times a Bobo doll was hit; observing an aggressive or nonaggressive model

d) observing an aggressive or nonaggressive model; number of hits directed at a Bobo doll

ANS: d, pp. 16-18,


1-90. How do researchers ensure that groups of participants are equal before they begin an experiment?

a) They randomly assign participants to groups.

b) They measure the dependent variable repeatedly.

c) They use independent variables that are correlated with extraneous variables.

d) They assign participants who have identified themselves as having control of extraneous variables.

ANS: a, p. 18,

1-91. Two groups of grade-school children were randomly selected, and for one group, their teachers were told that they were “intellectual bloomers.” At the end of several months, the “intellectual bloomers” scored higher on an IQ test. What did researchers conclude from this study?

a) Teacher expectations can cause students to be perceived differently, and they respond in accordance with those expectations.

b) Even though groups were randomly selected, there must have been a difference in IQ between the groups before the intervention.

c) Teacher expectations don’t make a difference in student performance.

d) Some unknown third variable must explain the results.

ANS: a, p. 18,

1-92. Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables, such as age, that could also influence one’s ability to recall these events, age could be considered a(n) ________ variable.

a) random

b) dependent

c) extraneous

d) independent

ANS: c, p. 18,


1-93. What are the two major types of statistics?

a) primary and secondary

b) arithmetic and geometric

c) descriptive and inferential

d) correlational and experimental

ANS: c, p. 19,


1-94. The new fifth-grade teacher just arrived for her orientation session. The principal provided her with information on the class she will begin teaching next week, including the group results on a state-required achievement test administered at the end of fourth grade. The principal tells the teacher that the students’ average score was exactly at their grade level. What question should the teacher ask that will help her evaluate the information she has been given?

a) What is the correlation between IQ scores and the state test scores?

b) What percentage of the students come from homes that are in the poverty range?

c) What is the degree of variability or spread around the average score on that test?

d) What do the inferential statistics demonstrate about the scores obtained by this group of students?

ANS: c, p. 20,

1-95. Your teacher presented the distribution of grades on the last quiz. What type of statistics did she use to convey this information?

a) inferential

b) descriptive

c) correlational

d) observational

ANS: b, pp. 19-20,

1-96. Which of these is the best description of the use of inferential statistics?

a) procedure used to explain the relationship between two variables

b) method for summarizing a large amount of data with a few numbers

c) method used to determine the practical importance of research findings

d) procedure for determining if differences are due to chance or non-chance factors

ANS: d, p. 20,


1-97. Which of these is a measure of central tendency?

a) mean


b) scatterplot

c) standard deviation

d) correlation coefficient

ANS: a, p. 20, F/ D,


1-98. A research psychologist reading phrases such as “respecting individuals’ rights to privacy and confidentiality” and “participants must be protected from physical and psychological harm” is reading about _______ guidelines in conducting research.

a) moral

b) legal

c) ethical

d) courteous

ANS: c, pp. 20-21,

1-99. Why do psychologists set limits on what they can ask and do in their research?

a) to protect participants

b) they do not wish to intrude

c) to establish cause-and-effect relationships

d) so they do not exceed the limits of good taste

ANS: a, pp. 20-21,

1-100. What is the purpose of an institutional review board (IRB)?

a) to judge the relevance of research to solving social problems

b) to prioritize research projects funded by the federal government

c) to evaluate research proposals to determine if they meet ethical guidelines

d) to grant academic credit to students who are forced to participate in research

ANS: c, p. 20,

1-101. Which group must evaluate all psychological research proposals before the research can be conducted?

a) institutional review board

b) governmental review committee

c) committee of potential participants

d) national committee of psychologists

ANS: a, p. 20,

1-102. In order to shed light on some of the factors that might have influenced the Holocaust, Stanley Milgram asked participants to administer electrical shocks to others as part of what was described as research on learning. Today, this research would violate which ethical principle?

a) impartiality

b) confidentiality

c) right to treatment

d) protection from harm

ANS: d, pp. 20-21,


1-103. Research participants are entitled to know and agree to the nature of research and the requirements of participation according to the concept of

a) impartiality.

b) confidentiality.

c) full participation.

d) informed consent.

ANS: d, p. 21,


1-104. According to the ethical guidelines for conducting research, what is an experimenter who uses deception required to do?

a) disclose the deception before the experiment begins

b) debrief participants immediately after the experiment

c) inform local law enforcement agencies of the use of deception

d) pay participants a bonus for participating in an experiment that used deception

ANS: b, p. 21,

1-105. What rationale do researchers offer for the use of animals in research?

a) Animals do not feel pain.

b) Animals are cheaper than using human participants.

c) Some research cannot be done with human participants.

d) Most of the animals used in research are not commonly found as pets.

ANS: c, p. 21,

1-106. Over the past few decades, what change has occurred in psychological research involving the use of animals?

a) There has been a decrease in the number of studies using certain species.

b) The number of state and federal guidelines governing the use of animals has decreased.

c) Government regulations have limited the use of animals to medical research on life-threatening diseases.

d) The use of animals in research is now limited to major research universities that receive grants to conduct research.

ANS: a, p. 22,


1-107. Concern over the use of animals in research has led researchers to seek alternatives to the use of animals. Which of these is one of the alternatives that researchers have devised in recent decades?

a) Researchers are relying on the use of correlational research in place of experimental research.

b) Bacteria and fertilized chicken eggs have been used as substitutes for animals in tests on toxic chemicals.

c) Computer projections of the possible effects of chemicals on the brain are used to replace experiments on live animals.

d) Researchers are relying on panels of experts to make predictions on the possible outcomes of experiments based on their experiences.

ANS: b, p. 22,


1-108. What was Wilhelm Wundt’s major contribution to the discipline of psychology?

a) He wrote psychology’s ethics code.

b) He founded the first psychological laboratory.

c) He created the first diagnostic categories of psychological disorders.

d) He showed how statistics could be used to analyze psychological research.

ANS: b, p. 24,

1-109. Why was the perspective followed by Edward Titchener and his followers called structuralism?

a) They wanted to identify the major brain structures.

b) Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind.

c) They focused their efforts on analyzing the elements of the nervous system.

d) Their primary focus was on describing the structure of conscious experience.

ANS: d, p. 24,

1-110. What is the best analogy for Titchener’s mission for psychology?

a) a chart listing basic chemical elements

b) a list of courses required for graduation

c) a list of types of clothing sold at a retail outlet

d) a computer program for word processing a term paper

ANS: a, p. 24,

1-111. Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, texture, and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called

a) hypnosis.

b) introspection.

c) conditioning.

d) psychoanalysis.

ANS: b, p. 24,

1-112. In the early part of the past century, psychologists who studied conscious experience were called structuralists. What term might we use today to describe psychologists with similar interests?

a) Gestalt

b) cognitive

c) behavioral

d) humanistic

ANS: b, p. 24,

1-113. Who was an early proponent of functionalism with a special interest in the stream of consciousness?

a) Ivan Pavlov

b) William James

c) Wilhelm Wundt

d) Max Wertheimer

ANS: b, p. 24,

1-114. While browsing through a book on the history of psychology, you come across a letter from a psychologist to a friend. The psychologist wrote, “If asked, I would describe myself as a functionalist.” If that psychologist were alive today, where would we most likely find him?

a) in a laboratory, studying principles of perception

b) in a school, working to improve teaching methods

c) in a mountain retreat, contemplating the meaning of life

d) in a sleep laboratory, trying to determine if our need for sleep is biologically based

ANS: b, pp. 24-25,

1-115. Which type of early psychologist believed that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts”?

a) Gestalt

b) behaviorist

c) structuralist

d) functionalist

ANS: a,

1-116. While on a visit to a large city you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seem to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon?

a) Gestalt

b) behavioral

c) humanistic

d) psychodynamic

ANS: a,
1-117. To a psychologist interested in perception, which perspective would seem to be most useful and relevant?

a) Gestalt

b) behaviorism

c) structuralism

d) functionalism

ANS: a,
1-118. Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a PhD in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of these might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research?

a) a survey of daydreams

b) an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired

c) a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women

d) an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items

ANS: b,
1-119. John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of

a) behavior.

b) the mind.

c) the brain.

d) consciousness.

ANS: a,

1-120. What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?

a) “Focus on observable behavior.”

b) “Life is an effort to overcome inferiority.”

c) “We cannot know others until we know ourselves.”

d) “Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes.”

ANS: a,

1-121. Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engaged in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities?

a) Gestalt

b) behavioral

c) psychodynamic

d) functionalist

ANS: b,

1-122. Who claimed that behavior is controlled by environmental consequences?

a) William James

b) Sigmund Freud

c) B. F. Skinner

d) Wilhelm Wundt

ANS: c,

1-123. Which pair of psychologists shared the most similar views of psychology?

a) William James and Ivan Pavlov

b) Ivan Pavlov and Max Wertheimer

c) B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson

d) Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener

ANS: c,

1-124. You are asked to read a biography of Sigmund Freud and describe several facts of his life that others might find unusual. You decide to include information on his training on your list. What aspect of Freud’s training might be considered unusual?

a) He was originally trained to be a neurologist.

b) His primary interest was in animal, not human, behavior.

c) He was drawn to psychology to find a cure for family members.

d) Rather than attending established schools, he was determined to teach himself.

ANS: a, p. 26,


1-125. What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding behavior?

a) free will

b) brain physiology

c) the unconscious mind

d) external consequences

ANS: c, p. 26,


1-126. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy and it is your turn. “I’ll take ‘Pioneers in Psychology’ for $50.” The revealed answer is “Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

a) “Who is B. F. Skinner?”

b) “Who are the humanists?”

c) “Who is Sigmund Freud?”

d) “Who are the behaviorists?”

ANS: c, p. 26,

1-127. Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients?

a) drug therapy

b) neuropsychology

c) clinical psychology

d) psychoanalytic therapy

ANS: d, p. 26,

1-128. Which therapeutic technique did Sigmund Freud use and later abandon?

a) hypnosis

b) drug therapy

c) dream analysis

d) analyzing slips of the tongue

ANS: a, p. 26,


1-129. A therapist who asks about a client’s dreams to understand the workings of the unconscious mind is using

a) behavior analysis.

b) humanistic therapy.

c) psychoanalytic therapy.

d) client-centered therapy.

ANS: c, p. 26,


1-130. You attend a lecture by a psychologist who suggests that people have many choices that cannot be understood by studying animals or maladjusted persons. Which psychological perspective is consistent with the points the psychologist presented?

a) behavioral

b) humanistic

c) functionalist

d) psychodynamic

ANS: b, p. 27,


1-131. Which psychological perspective focuses on creative potential and psychological health?

a) Gestalt

b) humanistic

c) behavioral

d) psychodynamic

ANS: b, p. 27,


1-132. Which question is most likely to be answered by a physiological psychologist?

a) How can we reach our highest level of self-fulfillment?

b) How does heredity influence our level of extraversion?

c) What is the influence of parents on toy preferences in children?

d) What environmental objects reinforce our behavior in particular situations?

ANS: b, p. 27,

1-133. You overhear a conversation between two members of the psychology department. During the conversation they use the words neurons and neurotransmitters. Which psychological perspective are these two individuals likely to be discussing?

a) Gestalt

b) cognitive

c) behavioral

d) physiological

ANS: d, p. 27,

1-134. You overhear several students studying for an exam in psychology and hear the term natural selection. If they are reviewing various perspectives, which one do you believe is the focus of their review at the moment?

a) cognitive

b) humanistic

c) psychodynamic

d) evolutionary

ANS: d, p. 28,


1-135. An evolutionary psychologist studying the evolution of the human hand examines and tries to understand the structure of the hand and then assesses it side-by-side with the hands of other species (e.g., chimps). What two approaches, in order, is this psychologist using?

a) comparative; functional

b) functional; comparative

c) relational; structural

d) structural; relational

ANS: b, p. 28,


1-136. How do psychologists use the evolutionary perspective to explain differences in aggression in men and women?

a) Men engage in more indirect forms of aggression that are less likely to lead to retaliation because their size and strength make it more likely that they could hurt each other seriously, thus leading to less survival of the species.

b) Women engage in more indirect forms of aggression that are less likely to lead to retaliation, thus allowing for maternal behaviors.

c) Men engage in more direct forms of aggression because the Y chromosome contains a mutation that codes for forms of aggression meant to protect territory against members of the same species.

d) Women engage in more direct forms of aggression to compensate for their smaller size and make themselves appear more threatening.

ANS: b, p. 28,

1-137. Virginia believes that the trouble she has remembering and organizing information is affecting her work. Which psychological perspective is most likely to address the processes that are influencing her job performance?

a) Gestalt

b) humanistic

c) behavioral

d) cognitive

ANS: d, pp. 28-29,

1-138. Which psychological perspective has been influenced by the ability of the computer to simulate human thought processes?

a) cognitive

b) behavioral

c) physiological

d) functionalism

ANS: a, p. 29,


1-139. What was one of Mary Whiton Calkins’s major accomplishments?

a) offering the definition of psychology used today

b) establishing the first school of psychology to offer degrees to women

c) developing the statistical methods that made experimental research possible

d) being elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association

ANS: d, p. 29,


1-140. Your professor is reviewing the history of psychology for a class on “The Beginning of Psychology.” How will the professor describe Inez Beverly Prosser?

a) She was the first woman to receive a PhD in psychology.

b) She was the first woman to study the genetics of schizophrenia.

c) She was one of the first African Americans to earn a PhD in psychology.

d) She was the first woman to be elected president of the American Psychological Association.

ANS: c, p. 30,


1-141. What is the current representation of men and women in the field of psychology?

a) Men earn more doctoral degrees than women.

b) Women earn more doctoral degrees than men.

c) Psychology does not categorize doctoral degrees by gender.

d) Women and men earn approximately equal numbers of doctoral degrees.

ANS: b, p. 30,

1-142. Your teacher asks you to study the status of racial minorities in psychology and give a report to the class. After you completed your research and before giving your presentation, you are asked to summarize your findings. Which of these statements will you give to your teacher?

a) Racial minorities have always had the option of professional training in psychology.

b) The number of racial minorities finding employment in the field of psychology is increasing.

c) The rate of racial minorities receiving doctoral degrees is decreasing despite efforts to alter this trend.

d) A member of a racial minority has never been elected president of the American Psychological Association.

ANS: b, p. 30,

1-143. What was one of Kenneth B. Clark’s contributions to psychology?

a) He founded the first psychology program to enroll African American students.

b) He petitioned the state legislature to allow African American students to enroll in graduate programs.

c) His research on the harmful effects of segregation was cited by the Supreme Court in a landmark case.

d) His research on memory showed how early experiences can alter the way people process events in adulthood.

ANS: c, p. 30,


1-144. Which of the following is a partial job description of a psychologist who holds the environmental/population perspective?

a) tries to understand how learning influences behaviors that affect child rearing

b) applies psychological principles to increase the tendency for people to turn off lights

c) engages in research on population genetics to see which genes are common across the world

d) uses cross-culturally sensitive messages to convey information so that it is understood by people globally

ANS: b, p. 31,

1-145. What is the best title for a debate between Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner?

a) “The Road to Ecstasy: Dreams versus Daydreams”

b) “Spiritual Reawakening: Which Path Is Right for Me?”

c) “Emotions are the Essence of Our Lives: Myth or Reality”

d) “Determinants of Behavior: The Unconscious versus the Environment”

ANS: d, pp. 31-32,

1-146. Which term refers to a view of psychology that combines several perspectives?

a) bipolar

b) eclectic

c) cognitive

d) nondirectional

ANS: b, p. 32,

1-147. Your instructor likes to summarize key findings described in class by creating movie or book titles. Today’s lecture focused on the status of the discipline of psychology today. Which of these would make for the best title?

a) “Psychology: Revising Its Historical Approaches”

b) “Psychology: Diversity in Subfields and Activities”

c) “A Discipline Dedicated to Helping People Who Have Problems”

d) “Giving Away Our Research Findings to Psychiatry So We All May Live Better”

ANS: b, p. 32,

1-148. A biography of a famous psychologist describes her perspective as eclectic. Which statement is most likely to describe this person?

a) She focuses on unconscious experiences.

b) Her views combine several different perspectives.

c) Her research focuses on the causes of mental illness.

d) She is especially concerned about ethical issues in psychology.

ANS: b, p. 32,


1-149. What is the primary focus of psychologists who are interested in applications of psychology?

a) animal research

b) providing health services

c) conveying psychological knowledge through media outlets

d) using the behavioral perspective to make psychology more rigorous

ANS: b, p. 32,

1-150. Your friend tells you she is going to enroll in a graduate school to study the largest specialty area of psychology. What type of psychology program is she entering?

a) social

b) clinical

c) counseling

d) experimental

ANS: b, p. 33,

1-151. You are attending a meeting of the American Psychological Association. If you randomly select someone from those in attendance, what specialty is the individual most likely to represent?

a) clinical

b) counseling

c) educational

d) industrial/organizational

ANS: a, p. 33,

1-152. What is one similarity shared by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists?

a) They obtain the same graduate degree.

b) They have the same training experiences after college.

c) They view abnormal behaviors as arising from the same causes.

d) They diagnose and treat people experiencing behavior and emotional problems.

ANS: d, p. 33,

1-153. On a television talk show, an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist. You conclude that the actor’s therapist is a

a) podiatrist.

b) psychiatrist.

c) clinical psychologist.

d) counseling psychologist.

ANS: b, p. 33,

1-154. Your friend is experiencing difficulty in selecting a major in college. To which type of professional would you most likely refer your friend?

a) psychiatrist

b) school psychologist

c) clinical psychologist

d) counseling psychologist

ANS: d, p. 33,

1-155. Which statement could be used to illustrate the concept of ethnocentrism?

a) “Values, morals, and behaviors must be examined from a sociocultural perspective in order to be fully understood.”

b) “Psychological disorders need to be understood within the culture in which they manifest.”

c) “Because modern psychology is primarily based in the United States, our psychological research can be applied to all other cultures.”

d) “Tests of intelligence should be developed to reflect what is important in a given culture rather than being geared to a universal concept of intelligence.”

ANS: c, p. 34,

1-156. What type of psychologist is likely to study how parents influence their children’s self-esteem and ability to cope with stressors?

a) forensic

b) counseling

c) developmental

d) industrial/organizational

ANS: c, p. 33,

1-157. What specialty in psychology would be most interested in studying patterns of friendship factors that affect aggression at sporting events, and when people help others along interstate highways?

a) social

b) clinical

c) forensic

d) developmental

ANS: a, p. 34,


1-158. Alice’s third-grade teacher believes she has a reading problem that causes difficulty in learning. Which type of psychologist is likely to be asked to evaluate Alice and plan a treatment program?

a) school psychologist

b) forensic psychologist

c) counseling psychologist

d) experimental psychologist

ANS: a, p. 35,


1-159. Which terms describe the same psychological specialty?

a) counseling and forensic

b) clinical and physiological

c) ergonomics and human factors

d) developmental and neuropsychology

ANS: c, p. 35,


1-160. Which type of psychologist is most likely to develop a program for a corporation interested in reducing employee absenteeism?

a) forensic

b) consumer

c) clinical/counseling

d) industrial/organizational

ANS: d, p. 35,

1-161. A new acquaintance tells you that she works in the specialty called ergonomics. What might she tell you when you ask for a description of her work?

a) She surveys voters to identify their preferred alcoholic beverages.

b) She designs the controls on the dashboard of cars for ease of use.

c) She writes computer programs that select individuals to be called for jury duty.

d) She develops programs to reduce the percentage of teenagers who start smoking cigarettes.

ANS: b, p. 35,

1-162. The Toys Galore corporation is designing computerized toys for children between the ages of 6 and 10. They want to ensure that the toys are designed to be easily understood by these children. What specialties in psychology should be represented on the team working on this project?

a) clinical and forensic

b) experimental and social

c) consumer and developmental

d) counseling and neuropsychology

ANS: c, pp. 34-35,

1-163. The personnel department of Mega Industries has decided that the company needs additional employees with skills to design control panels for the equipment the company manufactures. When the company recruiters interview psychologists, which specialty will be of special interest to them?

a) clinical

b) forensic

c) developmental

d) human factors

ANS: d, p. 35,


1-164. Which work description fits the specialty of forensic psychology?

a) Bonnie evaluates prison inmates for possible parole.

b) Ida administers tests of reading readiness to four-year-old children.

c) Tim measures the risk of heart disease that may be due to personality.

d) John designs research to determine the effects of lighting on appreciation of art.

ANS: a, p. 36,


1-165. A defendant in a murder case pleads “not guilty by reason of insanity” because he has a psychological disorder. Under state law the judge must appoint experts to examine the defendant and offer their opinions to the court. If psychologists are asked for their expert opinions, which specialties would the judge seek out?

a) clinical and forensic

b) developmental and social

c) counseling and experimental

d) neuropsychology and school

ANS: a, pp. 33-36,

1-166. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy and it is your turn. “I’ll take ‘Specialties in Psychology’ for $300.” The revealed answer is “Likely to be called as an expert witness on topics such as the effects of observing violent crime on eyewitness identification.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

a) “What is a neuropsychologist?”

b) “What is a forensic psychologist?”

c) “What is a counseling psychologist?”

d) “What is a developmental psychologist?”

ANS: b, p. 36,

1-167. Sal is training to make the Olympic soccer team. He is afraid that his difficulty in relaxing prior to the tryouts will affect his performance. Which professional is most qualified to help Sal improve his performance?

a) psychiatrist

b) sport psychologist

c) consumer psychologist

d) counseling psychologist

ANS: b, p. 36,


1-168. David was involved in a serious automobile accident that left him with a severe head injury. Which type of psychologist is best trained to design a rehabilitation program to help him regain his abilities?

a) neuropsychologist

b) social psychologist

c) forensic psychologist

d) counseling psychologist

ANS: a, p. 36,

1-169. Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with brain functioning?

a) neuropsychology

b) social psychology

c) school psychology

d) forensic psychology

ANS: a, p. 36,


1-170. A sport psychologist is asked to assist elite athletes in preparing for the Olympics. Which techniques is she most likely to use to help these athletes improve their performance?

a) imagery and relaxation

b) dream analysis and writing therapy

c) EEG analysis and breathing exercises

d) biofeedback and psychoanalytic therapy

ANS: a, p. 36,

1-171. The U.S. Congress designated the 1990s as the decade of

a) the mind.

b) the brain.

c) cognitive processes.

d) psychological research.

ANS: b, p. 36,

1-172. The Psychology Department created a career day to introduce students to the various specialties of the discipline. One of the invited guests is a forensic psychologist. When she is asked to give a brief description of what she might do in a typical day, what might she tell the students?

a) “One of my tasks is designing questionnaires to measure attitudes and product knowledge for computer equipment.”

b) “For a company plagued with low morale, I meet with managers to collect information to be used in designing an intervention program.”

c) “A law firm asked me to help select a jury in a civil trial and to serve as an expert witness on the topic of eyewitness testimony in a criminal trial.”

d) “The local stadium has been having trouble with people running onto the field and the manager asked me to develop behavioral techniques to deal with the problem.”

ANS: c, p. 36,


1-173. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy and it is your turn. “I’ll take ‘Specialties in Psychology’ for $50.” The revealed answer is “Two of the newest specialty areas in psychology.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

a) “What are forensic and sport psychology?”

b) “What are consumer and social psychology?”

c) “What are clinical and counseling psychology?”

d) “What are human factors and school psychology?”

ANS: a, p. 36,

1-174. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy and it is your turn. “I’ll take ‘Specialties in Psychology’ for $50.” The revealed answer is “A specialty that might involve devising rehabilitation programs to help stroke patients.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?

a) “What is ergonomics?”

b) “What is neuropsychology?”

c) “What is forensic psychology?”

d) “What is counseling psychology?”

ANS: b, p. 36,

1-175. College graduates with an undergraduate degree in psychology


  1. will need to get at least a master’s degree in order to find a job in a psychology-related field.

  2. will need to get at least a doctoral-level degree (PhD, PsyD) in order to find a job in a psychology-related field.

  3. can find a job, but not in a psychology-related field.

  4. can find jobs in fields related to psychology, to business, and to other areas.

ANS : d, pp. 36-37,

ESSAY
1-176. What is the definition of psychology? Explain each component of the definition.

* Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

* Psychology is identified as a science because it uses the scientific method.

* Behavior is often viewed as a visible and quantifiable mechanism by which the human experience can be identified.

* Mental processes are composed of the less tangible inner experiences that are equally important in describing human beings.

1-177. What does it mean to become a psychological detective? Why is it important to become a psychological detective?

* Psychological detectives are able to critically evaluate the validity of information they receive.

* It is important to become a psychological detective so that you are able to ask good questions, gather useful information, and arrive at defensible conclusions based on the information you have at your disposal.

1-178. Imagine you are a psychologist trying to uncover the causes of schizophrenia. How would you approach this question from the perspective of a psychological detective?

*To answer this or any other question from the perspective of a psychological detective, there are four guidelines which should be followed:

(1) What is the statement or claim, and who is making it?

(2) Is the statement or claim based on scientific observations?

(3) What do statistics reveal?

(4) Are there plausible alternative explanations for the statement or claim?

1-179. Does the scientific method appear to be more or less useful for any of the psychological approaches or perspectives over the others? Why or why not?

* The student’s answer should identify specific ideas associated with an approach that make it more or less useful with the scientific method.

1-180. Choose one of the following research approaches: case study, naturalistic observation, correlational research, or survey research. Summarize the approach you choose and give details about its methodology. What prevents this approach from uncovering cause-and-effect relationships?

* A case study is an in-depth study of a single individual that can often provide suggestions for further research.

* Naturalistic observation is the study of behavior in its typical setting with no attempts to alter it.

* Correlational research identifies whether two variables are related.

* Survey research involves the collection of information from a selected group of people who are representative of a larger group.

* The response should identify in each case how it is difficult to identify that one single event is the sole cause of the particular phenomena being studied.


1-181. You are interested in the effects of rock music on the sexual behaviors of teenagers. Choose one of the four research approaches and describe how you would study the issue (i.e., a case study, naturalistic observation, correlational research, or survey research). What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in studying this particular issue?

* The response should identify one of the four research approaches identified in the text and briefly design a study appropriate for that method.

* Advantages and disadvantages should be identified relative to the other approaches.

1-182. Imagine you are a psychologist researching the effects of parents helping children with homework on the children’s grades. What would you do in order to conduct an experiment to study this topic? What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable?

* The response might indicate which one of the four research approaches would be the most appropriate and identify the independent variable as parental help and the dependent variable as the child’s grades.

1-183. You wish to conduct an experiment dealing with people’s learning ability as a function of the type of teacher they have. What ethical considerations should you address before you conduct this research?

* Ethical considerations include the recognition of the limitations of psychological expertise, showing respect for the rights and dignity of people such as the right to confidentiality and privacy, research must be conducted to protect participants from physical and psychological harm, participation is voluntary, informed consent, and debriefing after the study.

* The response should include any of these as well as others that may be appropriate to learning disabled children such as parental consent.

1-184. Describe the specific ethical considerations as they relate to conducting a case study, naturalistic observations, and survey research. Are certain concerns more or less applicable to particular types of research?

* The response should include the previously identified ethical concerns as well as others that may be more or less applicable for specific types of research.

1-185. Summarize the approaches of structuralism and functionalism and describe their key differences.

* Structuralism is the earliest approach in psychology, with the goal of analyzing the basic elements of conscious experience, and was founded by Edward Titchner.

* Titchner often used introspection as his primary method for reporting the contents of conscious experience.

* Functionalism is an approach to psychology that focused on the functions of the consciousness. William James was an early proponent.

* Functionalism was more interested in what the mind did and why, instead of its basic elements, and was therefore interested in applications of psychology.

1-186. Summarize John B. Watson’s and B. F. Skinner’s approaches to psychology.

* Watson believed that psychology should be concerned with only what could be observed; behavior could be assessed with animals in tightly controlled laboratory settings and later expanded to human beings.

* Skinner believed that behavioral changes were the result of environmental consequences and that the goal of psychology should be to identify and change these environmental conditions.

1-187. The text presents psychodynamic and humanistic psychology as approaches that deal with people’s problems. Compare and contrast these two perspectives.

* The psychodynamic perspective, taken by Sigmund Freud, emphasizes that normal and abnormal behaviors are determined by unconscious forces.

* The humanistic perspective, often associated with Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, emphasizes free will and individuals’ control of behavior.

* The humanistic approach seeks to understand people as unique individuals and their potential for growth, whereas the psychodynamic approach is more likely to examine someone having difficulty adjusting.

* The psychodynamic approach is more concerned with the influence of unconscious forces, not free will, on our behavior.

* Both have developed therapeutic techniques for the treatment based on the focus of their respective approaches.

1-188. Discuss some of the obstacles encountered by women and members of minority groups as they attempted to enter the field of psychology.

* Mary Whiton Calkins completed her work at Harvard University, yet the university refused to grant her the PhD because it did not grant degrees to women. Nevertheless, she went on to found one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States and was the first woman elected president of the American Psychological Association.

* Christine Ladd-Franklin was not considered suitable for any regular academic position because she was married.

* According to Robert Guthrie (in his book Even the Rat was White), professional training was not an option for African Americans during the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1920, Francis Sumner became the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology. Sumner established the psychology program at Howard University.

1-189. Psychology is composed of many specialties. Choose three psychological specialties and summarize them: What aspect of psychology does each one deal with; how does each one approach its subject matter?

* Clinical psychology involves the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.

* Counseling psychology deals with less serious problems than those treated by clinical psychologists.

* Research psychologists are interested in conducting and reporting the results of experiments.

* School psychology involves helping children succeed socially, academically, emotionally, and behaviorally as well as providing consultation on other problems of school-age children.

* Industrial and organizational psychology involves the application of psychology to problems of business and other organizations.

* Consumer psychology studies consumers and the choices they make.

* Health psychology is concerned with how psychology and social variables affect health and illness.

* Forensic psychology is the application of psychology to the law and legal proceedings.

* Sport psychology provides services to athletes and coaches based on psychological principles.

* Neuropsychology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders.
1-190. Characterize the specialties and emerging specialties of psychology as they compare to the earlier approaches and perspectives. What benefits or difficulties may such approaches involve?

* The specialties of psychology are much more narrow in their focus and tend to involve the application of psychology.



* A given specialty may be more narrow in focus but able to incorporate a number of ideas from past approaches to psychology in addressing a particular problem.

* Specialization in psychology allows individuals to become more informed about a specific area but less knowledgeable about a broader range of topics. Breadth is sacrificed for depth.


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