• To what extent has the family reconstituted with resumption of adaptive roles or has become disrupted and dysfunctional? • Is the family availing itself of available information, social networks and available help? • Is the family mutually loving, supportive, open to each other’s physical emotional and social needs, grieving together and setting new mutual goals or is the family splintered and competing for emotional needs? • Is the family tense, with suppressed emotions expressed in irritabilities, withdrawal and absent or overactive sexual needs? • What positive judgements and meanings have evolved from disaster experiences and what angers, guilts, shames, sense of injustice and negative meanings are smouldering? • Are vulnerable family members such as children, the elderly and frail cared for properly? • To what extent have family strengths and vulnerabilities come to the fore? • How can the former be encouraged and the latter be supported? Adults • Following the euphoria of survival, how are people coping with the realisation of what happened and how hard it will be to rebuild? • How are they coping with their various roles and how are they able to access social networks and help? • Which adaptive and maladaptive biological, psychological and social responses of which strategies of survival are still fluctuating and reverberating with the disaster? • How are these responses being expressed? (e.g., relived, suppressed, transferred to new situations, projected on others) • What current stressors are present and are the responses to them adaptive or maladaptive? •
Are insufficient or maladaptive means of dealing with new stressors due to faults in provision of help, still active disaster responses and/or past vulnerabilities?
• How have predisaster, disaster and postdisaster events, strengths and vulnerabilities compounded? • Have past fitness, resourcefulness, and sociability paid off, or have prior say, heart conditions, depressions, and social isolation worsened? • What judgements and meanings have been evolving? (For instance, “ I didn’t know I could be so effective.” “I am a bad mother.” People come good in disasters.” “People let you down when the crunch comes.”) • In the latter part of this phase are people starting to come to realistic terms with events or are they still (re)living traumatic events very vividly and consistently, stunned, oblivious and dissociated or overoptimistic, overimmersed, or have lost too intensely their life path and purpose and in need of continued assessment and help?