Post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder are complex and potentially severe and disabling conditions. They need to be carefully assessed and treated by clinicians trained in the field. Usually these conditions become compounded with pre-existing and subsequent problems and form a complex set of difficulties. Even without traumatic stress illnesses, complex personal and family problems often emerge during the recovery period. Emotional problems which may have been adequately managed in normal circumstances may become major difficulties in the context of the disaster stresses. These often require more extensive counselling or other forms of psychological treatment provided by experienced clinicians.