Personnel need to be followed up long term especially if they were traumatized in the disaster. This is because delayed responses may arise over a long period. Assessment. Includes checking for stress responses which are not settling after some time, stress responses which may arise as symptoms after variable delays and maladaptive defenses such as withdrawal, cutting off feelings, alcoholism and substance abuse. Professional assessments are made as for other affected populations. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and compassion fatigue are particularly looked for, but so are a variety of biological, psychological and social stress responses, symptoms illnesses, maladaptive coping, defenses and meanings. Vulnerabilities which may be taken into subsequent disasters are assessed. Interventions include counselling and stress and trauma therapy tailored to the particular needs of the affected worker.