The development of emergency and disaster arrangements to embrace the aspects of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (PPRR). PPRR are aspects of emergency management not sequential phases. convergence. The propensity for emergency services personnel and others to be physically drawn to an emergency site and the over-use of communications near the site. crisis counselling. Counselling provides a relationship in which the disaster affected persons’ experiences are able to be examined together with other issues in their lives in order to assist them to understand the effects the experiences have had and the meaning they have given them. It can then provide them with an alternative set of understandings.