Stress responses of various strategies of survival, both adaptive and maladaptive, biological, psychological and social, may be conceptualized to ripple along three dimensions. The three- dimensional ripple view of disasters informs the view of disaster effects. 3.3 Three -Dimensional View of Disasters (the triaxial framework) (Refer Appendix A) The first dimension or axis (called the parameter axis ) describes the “what” of the disaster (the event), the “when” (the disaster phases) and the “who” it struck and who was affected (the social system levels). Disaster phases and social system levels will be used in these guidelines as points of departure for assessments and interventions.
9 The second dimension or process axis describes the ripple process and makes sense of how and why various biological, psychological and social stress responses progress either to fulfilling results or symptoms and dysfunctions. The third dimension, the depth axis orientates responses along human developmental levels, ranging from instincts to spirituality. Examples of these levels include moral judgements, identity, beliefs, meanings and purpose.