Check Your Progress 1) Define Classical Conditioning Theory 2) What is the meaning of Extinction Stage in Classical Conditioning 3) Explain the meaning of Salivation in Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning 4. What is the meaning of Unconditioned Response in Pavlov’s Theory Conclusion It is believed that the learners and more importantly the teachers have greatly benefited from all the theories. The teachers should be familiar with this theory and apply it to teaching-learning activities where applicable. 5 . 2 TRANSFER OF TRAINING Introduction The ability of the individual to apply the previous experience on the new related experience is what we call transfer of learning. Except students are able to transfer prior skills and knowledge on new ones, the continuity of learning will be difficult. This unit will
66 explain how old learning can be transferred to anew one. You will know what the classroom teacher needs to do in order to facilitate transfer of experiences among his/her students.
The essence of learning is that a previously learnt fact should be linked with a present experience. This is because human being must be dynamic and that the prior experience will make them to develop the new skills and knowledge. The influence the past experience has on the succeeding experience is called transfer of learning.
Cormier and Hagman, (1987) define transfer of learning as the application of skills and knowledge learned in one context being applied in another context. Oladele (1998) defines transfer of learning as the effect of prior learning on the present. Learning is meaningful when the past learning smoothens the progress of something else. For example, if a learned experienced refuses to aid the new learning, the goal of training has seized to be accomplished. In the school, the teacher teaches some subjects in order that the experience gained in those subjects could be transferred into another. Charham (1987) affirms that human and animal learning is normally affected by the past experience, and that the various subjects are included in the school curriculum because of their utility and wide application to real life situations For instance, the teacher who has taught his/her students some skills in Mathematics would believe that such skills be transferred to related subjects like Physics or Accounting. If the students fail to apply these skills in their subsequent learning, it means that the students have not been successful in transferring the learning. The above example gives us clues into the different types of transfer of learning that we have. These are explained below