After going through this unit, you will be able to … • Explain the factors affecting learning • Explain how maturation affect learning • Explain the concept and importance of attention and perception • Explain the concept, principle, theories of motivation and technique of motivation students. • Discuss Fatigue as factor in Learning 6.1 INTRODUCTION Learning, as we know, can be considered as the process by which skills, attitudes, knowledge and concepts are acquired, understood, applied and extended . All human beings, engage in the process of learning, either consciously, subconsciously or subliminally whether grownups or children. It is through learning that their competence and ability to function in their environment get enhanced. It is important to understand that while we learn some ideas and concepts through instruction or teaching, we also learn through our feelings and experiences. Feelings and experiences area tangible part of our lives and these greatly influence what we learn, how we learn and why we learn.
Learning has been considered partly a cognitive process and partly asocial and affective one. It qualifies as a cognitive process because it involves the functions of attention, perception, reasoning, analysis, drawing of conclusions, making interpretations and giving meaning to the observed phenomena. All of these are mental processes, which relate to the intellectual functions of the individual. Learning is asocial and affective process, as the societal and cultural context in which we function and the feelings and experiences which we have, greatly influence our ideas, concepts, images and understanding of the world. These constitute inner subjective interpretations and represent our own unique, personalized constructions of the specific universe of functioning. Our knowledge, ideas, concepts, attitudes, beliefs and the skills, which we acquire, area consequence of these combined processes. The process of learning involves cognition, feeling, experience and a context. Individuals vary greatly with regard to their ability, capacity and interest in learning. You must have noticed such variations among your friends and students. In any family, children of the same parents differ with respect to what they can learn and how well they can learn. For example, a particular child maybe very good at acquiring practical skills such as repairing electrical gadgets, shopping for the household etc, while his brother or sister may in contrast be very poor on these, and good at academic tasks, instead. Even for yourself, you maybe perplexed why you can do some tasks well, but not others given the same competence level. For example, learning the tunes of songs and even their lyrics is often found to be easier than learning a formula or a poem. Do you ever wonder why this is so You may have observed that for some people, learning driving, swimming, or cooking is achieved easily, while for some others it is a nightmare. Why this happens, what could be the underlying reasons, why individuals differ with respect to how, and what they learn, are the key questions addressed in the present unit. To find some answers to these questions, we will