MENTAL PROCESSES RELATED TO LEARNING Unit structure 7.0 Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Thinking 7.2.1 Concept of Thinking 7.2.2 Tools of Thinking 7.2.3 Types of Thinking 7.0 OBJECTIVES After going through this unit, you will able to • To develop an understanding of the mental processes related to learning. • To develop an understanding of the nature and concept of thinking. • To acquaint the learners with the different types of thinking. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
Psychology deals with the study of the mental processes which includes how people think, perceive, remember and learn. Thus, it is concerned with internal processes such as thinking, memory, imagination, reasoning etc. Thought or capacity to think was atone time held to be not only the most distinctive characteristic of human nature but also the one which most clearly distinguished the human being from other creatures. The great philosopher Descartes had said, I think, so I exist, implying that thought is the very essence of human existence. Thinking, therefore, represents the most complex psychological processes. Most of the things in the world produced by man are products of his thinking and reasoning abilities. Even to understand, appreciate or use the things developed by man, one has to employ the powers of thinking and reasoning. Thus, powers of thinking and reasoning maybe considered to be essential tools for the welfare and meaningful existence of the individual as well as the society.
86 Learning not only involves thinking processes but also retaining or storing the acquired material and also retrieving and remembering the related material. It is a known fact that we neither retain nor remember everything that has been learnt or experienced. This phenomenon of losing is evidenced by our inability to remember what we have learnt and is known as forgetting. Thus, in this unit we will try to learn something about thinking, reasoning, memory and forgetting, which is an integral part of human behavior.