is when creative imagination is used or the original idea is adapted. E.g. when a play is based on the novel or the script becomes film. Thus even readers of science, history, travel books, novel and poetry all exercise imitative imagination. Check your progress: 1.What is imagination What are the different types of imagination
105 8.4 REASONING Meaning Reasoning plays a significant role in one’s adjustment to one’s environment. It controls not only one’s cognitive activities but may also influence the total behavior and personality by the proper or improper development of one’s reasoning ability. It is essentially a cognitive ability and is like thinking in many aspects. Characteristics of reasoning 1. It has definite goal or purpose. 2. It is implicit act and involves problem solving behavior. 3. It involves the use of one’s previous knowledge and experiences. 4. In reasoning, there is mental exploration rather than motor exploration as it involves mental exploration of the reason or cause of an event or happening. 5. It is highly symbolic function. The ability to interpret various symbols, development of concepts and language aids reasoning. Thus, it can be concluded that reasoning is productive and advanced stage in complex process of thinking. It is more serious and complex mental process. Garrett:
Reasoning is step – wise thinking with a purpose or goal in mind.
Gates: Reasoning is the term applied to highly purposeful, controlled and selective thinking. Munn: Reasoning is combining past experiences in order to solve a problem which cannot be solved by mere reproduction of earlier solutions. An analysis of the above definitions reveal that reasoning depicts a higher type of thinking which is a very careful, systematic and organized function. It may follow some logical systematic steps like 1. Identification of goal or purpose to which the reasoning is to be directed. 2. Mental exploration or search for the various possibilities, cause – and – effect relationships or solutions for realizing the set goal or purposes based on the previous learning or experiences and present observations or attempts.
106 3. Selection of the most appropriate possibility or solution by careful mental analysis of all the available alternatives. 4. Testing the validity of the selected possibility or solution, purely through mental exercise and thus finally accepting or rejecting it for the actual solution of the problem. Thus, reasoning maybe termed as highly specialized thinking which helps an individual to explore mentally the cause – and – effect relationship of an event or solution of a problem by adopting some well – organized systematic steps based on previous experiences combined with present observation.