Psychology of learning

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1. Define Reasoning. What are its characteristics


Thinking is a pattern of behaviour in which we make use of internal representations (symbols, signs etc) of things and events for the solution of some specific, purposeful problem.

We think with the help of Percepts, Images / Object, Concepts, Symbols / Signs, and Language.

Thinking can be
Convergent (one best answer from many sources, Divergent (different ideas from a source, Critical assessing the worth and validity of something, Reflective insightful cognitive thinking, or Lateral (thinking out of the box).

Memory is the ability to retain & reproduce impressions once perceived

Types of Memory are Immediate (few seconds, Short term
(upto thirty seconds if not chunked or coded) and Permanent fora fairly longtime Retention can be measured through the Recall method, the Recognition method and the Relearning method.


Registration or learning is done through rote memorization, spacing out the learning material, using whole or part learning, recitation and using mnemonics.

Forgetting is the inability to find the correct information (from our memory) at the given situation. It can be temporary or permanent.

Imagination is a passive, idle time activity based on past experiences. Imagination can be Reproductive or Productive. Productive Imagination can be further be Creative (Pragmatic Aesthetic Fantastic) or Imitative.

Reasoning is step – wise thinking with a purpose or goal in mind.

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