Note : Write down answer in the space given below I. Write two definitions to prove that intelligence is an ability to learn. II. Write the definition of intelligence according to Binet. III. In defining intelligence Thurstone and Spearnan both used the letter S. What is the meaning of S according to them
124 10.3 NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE I am sure that you got idea about what intelligence is. Now we will discuss the nature of intelligence. You may have the experience of discussing about the nature of your friends, parents, teachers etc, but today you will get the joy of discussing the nature of intelligence which changes the nature of persons. The nature of intelligence was first though of by a brilliant English Scientist Sir Francis Galton. His general conclusion that intelligence is a hereditary trait is reflected by the title of his book Hereditary Genius As you see that the definition of intelligence is defined differently, so the nature of intelligent is also described by different persons indifferent ways. For example the schoolteacher may describe a student as bright, if the learns his lesson easily. The manager of a Super Bazar may regard a Salesman as intelligent and smart if he can satisfy customers and dispose them of quickly. The workshops manager may regard an apprentice as intelligence if the he is skillful in using his hands and his tools. In the above cases, the word intelligent has been used in the sense of efficient behaviour
The nature of intelligence also differs according to the nature of work if can do. For example handing ideas and symbols such as words, formulas, numbers and diagrams abstract intelligence is required. A person with abstract intelligence is able to discover relations among symbols and to solve problems. Professionals like doctors, lawyers, literary men as well as businessmen and statesmen are supposed to possess a high degree of abstract intelligent.
In the same way the ability to deal with machines, equipment and mechanical appliances requires mechanical intelligence. The mechanics, the engineer and the trained industrial worker are supposed to be mechanically intelligence. Efficiency in getting on well in personal and social affairs requires social intelligence. Salesmen, Diplomats and Ministers are supposed to be socially intelligent. The socially intelligent person makes friends easily and is fateful in dealing with human beings. In selecting people for different occupations it is useful to know the types of intelligence an applicant possesses. There are, however, gross variations in the three different types of intelligence not only from person to person but also within the same person. A boy may not be able to learn mathematics but
125 may be ingenious in using mechanical tools. A girl may find chemistry and physics uninteresting but may have the talent to master a foreign language. We do not usually find a student who is very good in one subject and poor in all other subjects. It is rare to find a person who can do only one task very well. On the other hand, it maybe found that even average people perform to be positively related, we have discussed on the concept & nature of intelligence. On that basis we can generalize the important nature & characteristics of intelligence as follows.