Psychology of learning

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Cognitive Development
Perfection of language skills and the use of language to communicate with others is the principle cognitive task.

Language develops rapidly. Grammar and syntax are refined, and vocabulary increases geometrically. The child uses language as a communication tool. Thinking is concrete and egocentric in nature. Problem solving is illogical and magical thinking and fantasies are prevalent.

Social Development

The child develops rudimentary relationships with other children, which are usually characterized by "parallel play" that is playing in the presence of, rather than in interaction with, other children. Children also begin to imitate social roles at this time. Toilet training represents a significant internalization of social rules and expectations. The child expands social relationships outside the family and develops interactive and cooperative play skills with peers. The child begins to understand, explore, imitate, and practice social roles. The child learns concepts of "right" and "wrong" and begins to understand the nature of rules. He experiences guilt when he has done something wrong.

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