Psychology of learning



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B) B.F.Skinners- Operant Conditioning

What Is Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as
instrumental conditioning
) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Behaviorist BF. Skinner coined the term operant conditioning, which is why it is also referred as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term
operant
to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and everyday. Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect.




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