Psychology of learning



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2.
Negative reinforcers
involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior
increases.

Punishment
is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows.
Punishment weakens behaviour. There are two kinds of punishment
1.
Positive punishment
, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.
2.
Negative punishment
, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior
decreases.

Schedules of Reinforcement:




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