Psychology of learning

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Negative reinforcers
involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior

is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows.
Punishment weakens behaviour. There are two kinds of punishment
Positive punishment
, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.
Negative punishment
, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs. In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior

Schedules of Reinforcement:

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