Part SOCIAL And HeALTH fACTORS THAT ImPACT AgIng | 3 | 180 Chapter In general, African Americans seem to have a lower overall sense of control (Shaw & Krause, 2001 ), and this maybe tied to level of discrimination (Bruce & Thornton, 2004 ), which can hinder personal efforts to reach goals. Ina study of adults with type 2 diabetes, european Americans displayed significantly higher levels of global mastery than Latinos ( Skaff et al., 2003 ). These findings have important implications for health, especially in terms of the impact of attitudes about self-regulation and control of diabetes, which has a high prevalence among Latinos.
Although there are differences in control as a function of sociodemographic factors, they are largely main effects and do not typically interact with aging effects. There is little evidence to suggest that the patterns of change in control beliefs vary by gender, education, income, culture, or race/ethnicity. nevertheless, these group differences are relevant to aging because those who start outwith lower levels of perceived control maybe more vulnerable in the face of declines and less resilient. even if patterns of decline in control are similar across sex, SeS, culture, and race groups, those who start out at a disadvantage may reach a critical low point sooner than others who start out higher on control. Thus, a low sense of control maybe a risk factor for those groups who already have a poor prognosis foraging outcomes, and promoting a high sense of control maybe a valuable protective factor.