Topic 1: The process of scientific research Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology



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Topic 1: The process of scientific research

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

2. Role of Statistics in Psychology.

3. Basic statistical concepts (sample, population, sampling, etc).

4. Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

5. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

6. Research methods and design

7. Data analysis, interpretation and evaluation of results.

8. The research report.

BLOCK I: Introduction

Spanish


Análisis de datos en Psicología I., Botella et al. Pirámide

English


Bock, Velleman y de Veaux (2010, 3rd ed.). Stats: Modeling the World. Pearson Education.

Openintro book (Statistics):



https://www.openintro.org/stat/textbook.php?stat_book=os

Methods. Price: Psychology Research Methods: Core Skills and Concepts

v. 1.0


http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/psychology-research-methods-core-skills-and-concepts/

Bibliography
  • Scientific knowledge: “Wealth of information that human beings have acquired over nature and over themselves.”

  • Some types of non-scientific knowledge:

    Common sense (sayings…)

    Religion (origin of the world ...)

    Magic (potions ...)



1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

  • Scientific knowlege:
  • It can be defined in relation to its objectives and the way in which they are trying to achieve these objectives.

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

  • Objectives: Scientific knowledge aims to be established in the form of laws more generally possible.
  • How this knowledge is acquired: Scientific knowledge is acquired using a standardized method: the scientific method. One main feature is replicability, allowing consensus within the scientific community.

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.
  • Method of science: hypothetical-deductive method.
  • Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a predictive announced on the expected outcome of the investigation. Its requires verification and leads to a conclusion
  • Theory: Set of related hypotheses that provide a plausible explanation for a phenomenon or group of phenomena.
  • Inductive method: Reasoning from the particular to the general
  • Deductive method: Reasoning from the general to the particular

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

Research methods in psychology (I)

Steps to examine a research problem:

Definition of the problem

Deduction of testable hypotheses

Establishing a data collection procedure

Analysis of the results

Discussion of these results

Writing a research report

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

Validity

  • Are the results due to the experimental situation? (Internal validity: When the results are due to the manipulated factors and not from some uncontrolled variables)
  • Can we generalize the results to the "real world"? (External validity: generalizability of the results)

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

Relationship with statistics

Theory

Scientic hypothesis


Statistical hypothesis

Results


Role of Statistics in Psychology.

1.2. Función de la Estadística en Psicología.

Empirical psychological research

Data collection

Data analysis (Statistics)

Phase 1: Exploratory/descriptive analyses (Descriptive statistics)

Fase 2: Hypothesis testing (Inferential statistics)

Conclusions and generation of new hypotheses

Role of Statistics in Psychology.

Mozart Effect

Hypothesis (scientific): Subjects who listen to Mozart music improve performance on intelligence tests more than those who do not listen to Mozart.

Experiment. Half of the participants (randomly selected) is presented with music of Mozart, the other half are presented chillout music. Then, we conduct an intelligence test. According to the above hypothesis, one would expected differences in intelligence between the two groups.

Statistical hypothesis. The null hypothesis (H0) indicates no effect and the "alternative hypothesis" (H1) indicates presence of an effect.

The means and standard deviations of the group "Mozart" and the group "chillout" are calculated and the corresponding inference test is performed. We obtained a “p” value: this indicates how likely is to get the obtained result (or a more extreme result) assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

(Notice that the researcher typically want to reject the null hypothesis.)

1.2. Función de la Estadística en Psicología

1.2. Función de la Estadística en Psicología.

Role of Statistics in Psychology.

Independent variable (the variable that has been manipulated/selected): Type of music (Mozart vs. chillout)

Dependent variable (the variable that is being measured;): CI after listening to music

N = 10 (Randomization to groups; 5 subjects each group)

1.2. Función de la Estadística en Psicología

Example:


1.2. Función de la Estadística en Psicología

1.2. Función de la Estadística en Psicología.

Role of Statistics in Psychology.

Data


Group

IQ after music



Subj. 1

chillout

104.00

Subj. 2

chillout

100.00

Subj. 3

chillout

102.00

Subj. 4

chillout

104.00

Subj. 5

chillout

100.00

Subj. 6

Mozart

106.00

Subj. 7

Mozart

104.00

Subj. 8

Mozart

108.00

Subj. 9

Mozart

109.00

Subj. 10

Mozart


103.00

Results (SPSS)


Directory: mperea


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