Topic 1: The process of scientific research Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology


Descriptive analysis: The objective is to characterize, describe and draw conclusions on a sample of data



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Descriptive analysis: The objective is to characterize, describe and draw conclusions on a sample of data.

  • Descriptive analysis: The objective is to characterize, describe and draw conclusions on a sample of data.
  • Inferential analysis: It involves making inferences of the population from the data.
  • IMPORTANT NOTE: The link between both analyses is the theory of probability.

Basic statistical concepts

Univariant and Multivariant analyses

  • Univariate analysis: We organize and summarize data, treating each variable in isolation.
  • Multivariate analysis: In this case, we examine the relationship between two or more variables simultaneously.

Basic statistical concepts

Theme 1: The process of scientific research

1. Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology.

2. Role of Statistics in Psychology.

3. Basic statistical concepts (sample, population, sampling, etc).

4. Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

5. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

6. Research methods and designs.

7. Data analysis, interpretation and evaluation of results.

8. The research report.

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

Scienfical theories (taken from Wikipedia):

In science, the term "theory" refers to "a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment.” Theories must also meet further requirements, such as the ability to make falsifiable predictions with consistent accuracy across a broad area of scientific inquiry, and production of strong evidence in favor of the theory from multiple independent sources.

The strength of a scientific theory is related to the diversity of phenomena it can explain, which is measured by its ability to make falsifiable predictions with respect to those phenomena. Theories are improved (or replaced by better theories) as more evidence is gathered, so that accuracy in prediction improves over time; this increased accuracy corresponds to an increase in scientific knowledge. Scientists use theories as a foundation to gain further scientific knowledge, as well as to accomplish goals such as inventing technology or curing disease.

Example: theory of relativity

Taken from Wikipedia:

Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires selecting and identifying relevant aspects of a situation in the real world and then using different types of models for different aims, such as conceptual models to better understand, operational models to operationalize, mathematical models to quantify, and graphical models to visualize the subject. Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of scientific activity, and many scientific disciplines have their own ideas about specific types of modelling.

Definition of Model

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.


Directory: mperea


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