**Example:**
**Gómez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2008). The overlap model: A model of letter position coding. Psychological Review, 115, 577- 601.**
Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.
Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.
Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.
*Problem: Question to resolve arising from daily life, practical needs, contradictory results, etc.*
- A sentence, sometimes interrogative, indicating a relationship between variables.
- One must have creativity and originality, and the question should be interesting and well-constructed
- Example: The behavioral aspects associated with stuttering (stuttering) are influenced by excessive muscle tension?
Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.
*Hypothesis: A tentative solution that can be tested to determine its truth.*
Hypotheses must be empirically testable.
*Hypotheses should be clear and simple in its definition.*
*It is customary to ask them in terms of "if ... then ..."*
*Example: If excessive muscle tension affects the behavioral aspects of stuttering then include treating a muscle relaxant should improve the results of therapy.*
Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.
. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.
*Variable: Any characteristic that has more than one category.*
*Type of variables depending on the type of measurement:*
*Manifest variables: When the measurement can be directly measured.*
Example: reaction time, profession, gender.
*Latent variable: When the measured cannot be directly measured. They are unobservable characteristics.*
Example: Intelligence, psychological well-being.
- Measurement is the process of attributing numbers to characteristics.
- Assigning numbers to characteristics is done by following rules (Stevens, 1949).
. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.
SCALES in PSYCHOLOGY
- 1) Nominal Scale: The assigned numbers only serve to distinguish categories. Sex (0 = male, 1 = female). Relationship: same-different
- 2) Ordinal scale: The numbers indicate not only equality / inequality (nominal scale) but also a relationship of order. Depression level (0 = low, 1 = medium, 2 = high). Relationship: same-different and order
. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.
SCALES IN PSYCHOLOGY
- 3) Interval scales: In this case we already have measurement unit (that is, we know the difference between elements). The origin of the scale is arbitrary. Temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. Relationship: same-different order, constant unit
- 4) Ratio scales. In this case, we have both measurement unit as an absolute 0. In this case, we have relations of equality / inequality of reasons. Weight, height. Relationship: same-different, order, constant unit, absolute zero.
. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.
2.2. Variables: Definición, tipos y escalas de medida
TYPES OF VARIABLES
1) nominal or qualitative Variable (nominal scale)
2) Ordinal or quasi-quantitative Variable (ordinal scale)
3) Quantitative Variable (corresponding to the scale interval or ratio)
3a) Discrete: It only takes isolated values (e.g., number of children)
3b) Continuous: It can take any value within a defined range of values (weight, height, intelligence)
. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.
Research methods and design
Research Methods in Psychology
Experimental
Non-experimental or correlational
Random groups Natural manip.
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