Topic 1: The process of scientific research Research, knowledge generation, science in psychology


Gómez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2008). The overlap model: A model of letter position coding. Psychological Review, 115, 577- 601



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Gómez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2008). The overlap model: A model of letter position coding. Psychological Review, 115, 577- 601.

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.



Problem: Question to resolve arising from daily life, practical needs, contradictory results, etc.
  • A sentence, sometimes interrogative, indicating a relationship between variables.
  • One must have creativity and originality, and the question should be interesting and well-constructed
  • Example: The behavioral aspects associated with stuttering (stuttering) are influenced by excessive muscle tension?

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

Hypothesis: A tentative solution that can be tested to determine its truth.



Hypotheses must be empirically testable.



Hypotheses should be clear and simple in its definition.

It is customary to ask them in terms of "if ... then ..."

Example: If excessive muscle tension affects the behavioral aspects of stuttering then include treating a muscle relaxant should improve the results of therapy.

Theories, Models, Questions / problems, hypotheses.

. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

Variable: Any characteristic that has more than one category.




Type of variables depending on the type of measurement:



Manifest variables: When the measurement can be directly measured.

Example: reaction time, profession, gender.



Latent variable: When the measured cannot be directly measured. They are unobservable characteristics.

Example: Intelligence, psychological well-being.

  • Measurement is the process of attributing numbers to characteristics.
  • Assigning numbers to characteristics is done by following rules (Stevens, 1949).

. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

SCALES in PSYCHOLOGY


  • 1) Nominal Scale: The assigned numbers only serve to distinguish categories. Sex (0 = male, 1 = female). Relationship: same-different
  • 2) Ordinal scale: The numbers indicate not only equality / inequality (nominal scale) but also a relationship of order. Depression level (0 = low, 1 = medium, 2 = high). Relationship: same-different and order

. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

SCALES IN PSYCHOLOGY

  • 3) Interval scales: In this case we already have measurement unit (that is, we know the difference between elements). The origin of the scale is arbitrary. Temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. Relationship: same-different order, constant unit
  • 4) Ratio scales. In this case, we have both measurement unit as an absolute 0. In this case, we have relations of equality / inequality of reasons. Weight, height. Relationship: same-different, order, constant unit, absolute zero.

. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

2.2. Variables: Definición, tipos y escalas de medida

TYPES OF VARIABLES

1) nominal or qualitative Variable (nominal scale)

2) Ordinal or quasi-quantitative Variable (ordinal scale)

3) Quantitative Variable (corresponding to the scale interval or ratio)

3a) Discrete: It only takes isolated values (e.g., number of children)

3b) Continuous: It can take any value within a defined range of values (weight, height, intelligence)

. Variables: Definition, types and scales of measurement.

Research methods and design



Research Methods in Psychology

Experimental

Non-experimental or correlational

Random groups Natural manip.


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